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Jargon Buster - A to E

The third generation wireless service. Promises to provide high data speeds, always-on data access and greater voice capacity.

AB Testing
AB testing refers to two different versions of a page or a page element such as a heading, image or button. AB testing is aimed at increasing page or site effectiveness against key performance indicators including click through rates, conversion rates and revenue per visit.

Above the fold
A term derived from printed media, which is used to indicate whether a banner advertisement or other content is displayed on a web page without the need to scroll.

Access Platform
A method for customers to access digital media. Depending on usage of term, it may consist of hardware and/or a browser.

Access Provider
A company providing services to enable a company or individual to access the Internet. Access Providers are divided into Internet service providers (ISPs) and online service providers (OSPs).

Acquisition Rate
Percentage of participants who opted-in to participate in a mobile initiative/campaign. Total participants/total audience.

Active server page ASP
A type of HTML page (denoted by an .asp file name) that includes scripts (small programs) that are processed on a web server before the web page is served to the user’s web browser.

A programming language standard developed by Microsoft, which permits complex and graphical customer applications to be written and then accessed from a web browser.

Ad Creative
The design and content of an advert.

Ad exchanges
Online auction based marketplace that facilitates the buying and selling of inventory across multiple parties ranging from direct publishers, Ad Networks and Demand Side Platform (DSP.). These automated marketplaces enable sellers to monetise inventory via acceptance of the highest bid from buyers. Who Uses: Advertisers, Agencies, Ad Networks, DSPs, and Publishers.

Ad Impression
An ad impression transpires each time a consumer is exposed to an advertisement.

Ad Inventory
The total number of ad impressions that a web site can sell over time (usually specified per month).

Ad Optimisation
Automated and semi-automated means of optimising bid prices, placement, targeting, or other characteristics that are usually carried out in 3 manners: behavioural targeting, contextual targeting, and creative optimisation using experimental techniques.

Ad Rotation
When advertisements are changed on a website for different user sessions. This may be in response to ad targeting or simply displaying different advertisements from those on a list.

Ad Server
A computer that delivers and tracks advertisements independent of the web site where the ad is being displayed. Use of an ad server helps establish trust between an advertiser and publisher since the statistics can be maintained by an objective third party. Who uses: Advertisers, Agencies, DSPs, Ad Networks, Publishers.

Ad Serving
Delivery of online adverts to an end user’s computer by an ad management system. The system allows different online adverts to be served in order to target different audience groups and can serve adverts across multiple sites. Ad Technology providers each have their own proprietary models for this.

Ad Space
A space within an application that has been reserved for the display of advertising.

Ad Tracking
The method for recording campaign delivery metrics between adservers. Third party adserving tags or 1x1 tracking pixels are commonly used to facilitate the capturing of such data.

Ad Unit
Any defined advertising vehicle that can appear in an ad space inside of an application. For example for the purposes of promoting a commercial brand, product or service.

Advertisement Action
Any activity associated with an ad that enables interactivity between the advertiser and the consumer.

Any website that sells a product or service, accepts payments, and fulfills orders.

Advertising network
A company that provides sales representation for multiple independent websites by aggregating the ad inventory and selling ads across multiple sites.

Advertising networks
An online advertising service provider, often with proprietary technology, that helps marketers run display advertising campaigns across various sources of online inventory, including direct Publishers and Ad Exchanges. Who Uses: Advertisers, Agencies to reach audiences, Publishers to sell remnant inventory.

Affiliate marketing
An affiliate (a web site owner or publisher), displays an advertisement (such as a banner or link) on its site for a merchant (the brand or advertiser). If a consumer visiting the affiliate's site clicks on this advertisement and goes onto perform a specified action (usually a purchase) on an advertiser’s site then the affiliate receives a commission.

An advertising agency is a company that represents other companies by providing advertising related services such as planning, creating, buying and tracking an advertisement on behalf of their client.

An organisation that acts as a middle man between application and content providers, and mobile carriers.

The set of ‘rules’ a search engine may use to determine the relevance of a web page (and therefore ranking) in its organic search results. See also organic search results and Search Engine Optimization.

System for tracking user behaviour on the app/game both from a user experience and advertisement perspective. Analytics help developers understand trends within their app/game and optimise the user flow for maximum engagement and user retention.

Anchor text in SEO
The words forming a text-based hyperlink viewable within a browser which are important to search engine optimization because they indicate the content of the page they refer to search engines.

Android OS
Google’s official mobile operating system.

Software solutions that power the business logic for mobile marketing initiatives.

Application Service Provider (ASP)
An online network that is accessible through the Internet instead of through the installation of software. It is quickly integrated with other websites and the services are easily implemented and scalable.

Attrition Rate
Percentage of site visitors that are lost at each stage in making a purchase.

Authentication is the process of attempting to verify the digital identity of the sender of a communication such as a request to log in. The sender being authenticated, often referred to as the principal, may be a person using a computer, a computer itself or a computer program.

A picture or cartoon used to represent an individual in chat forums, games or on a website as a help function.

B2B (Business to business)
Commercial transactions between an organisation and other organisations.

B2C (Business to consumer)
Commercial transactions between an organisation and consumers.

Background Audio Ad
A background audio clip that is played throughout the MMS message, e.g Jingle.

The transmission rate of a communication line - usually measured in Kilobytes per second (Kbps). This relates to the amount of data that can be carried per second by an internet connection. See also Broadband.

A horizontal, online advert usually found running across the top of a page in a fixed placement. See also Universal Advertising Package, embedded formats.

Banner Ad
Basic ad units that are usually embedded within a site, application or game and come usually in a high-aspect ratio shape such as narrow and tall or short and wide.

Broadcasters Audience Research Board is responsible for the measurement of TV viewing.

Behavioural Retargeting
Online ads are displayed elsewhere on a site or other sites in an ad network after a customer has interacted with an initial ad related content.

Behavioural Targeting
A form of online marketing that uses advertising technology to target web users based on their previous behaviour. Advertising creative and content can be tailored to be of more relevance to a particular user by capturing their previous decision making behaviour (eg: filling out preferences or visiting certain areas of a site frequently) and looking for patterns.

A list of IP addresses that have been reported and listed as "known" sources of spam. There are public and private blacklists. Public blacklists are published and made available to the public.

An online space regularly updated presenting the opinions or activities of one or a group of individuals.

A system which allows messages to be automatically pushed to a consumer’s Bluetooth enabled phone. Alternatively, users can pull or request audio, video or text content to be downloaded from a live advert.

Sending a message from a mobile phone or transmitter to another mobile phone which is in close range via Bluetooth Technology.

A standard for wireless transmission of data between devices, e.g. a mobile phone and a PDA.

Brand advocate
A customer who has favourable perceptions of a brand, who will talk favourably about a brand to their acquaintances to help generate awareness of the brand or influence purchase intent.

Brand equity
The brand assets (or liabilities) linked to a brand’s name and symbol that add to (or subtract from) a service.

An internet connection that is always on and that delivers a higher bit rate (128kbps or above) than a standard dial-up connection. It allows for a better online experience as pages load quickly and users can download items faster.

When a streaming media player saves portions of file until there is enough information for the file to begin playing.

A square online advert usually found embedded within a website page. See also Universal Advertising Package, embedded formats.

Cache Memory
Used to store web pages users have seen already. When users re-visit those pages they load more quickly because they come from the cache and don't need to be downloaded over the internet again.

Cached date
This is the date when the search robot last visited a page. It is usually indicated within the search engine results page.

Cached pages
Google robots take a snapshot of each page visited as they crawl the web. These are stored and used as a backup if the original page is unavailable.

Call to Action (CTA)
An instruction often embedded in advertising that explains how to respond to an opt-in for a particular promotion or mobile initiative.

A company that provides wireless telecommunication services.

Cascading Style Sheet (CSS)
An external document containing code that defines a websites appearance.

Executed via a GPS enabled mobile device that allows a user to declare they are at a specific location.

Classified advertising
A form of advertising which is particularly common in newspapers, online and other periodicals which may be sold or distributed free of charge. Classified advertising is called such because it is generally grouped under headings classifying the product or service being offered (headings such as Accounting, Automobiles, Clothing etc) and is grouped entirely in a distinct section, which makes it distinct from display advertising. Display advertising typically contains graphics or other art work and which is more typically distributed throughout a publication adjacent to editorial content.

Click to Call
A link on a mobile website that when clicked instantly initiates a call from that phone to a pre-specified number.

Click to Play or CTP video ads
These video ads have an initial static image file which is displayed encouraging users to click to view the full video. The proportion of viewers who click is known as the Play Rate.

Click tracking URL
Also known as click through URL or click command. This is used to record the number clicks delivered on an advertising banner. Commonly used when third party adserving is not compatible and run alongside the 1x1 tracking pixel.

The process that takes a mobile subscriber to a jump or landing page once the mobile subscriber has clicked on the

Click-through rate (CTR)
Used to measure the success of a mobile or online advertising campaign. CTR = number of users who clicked on ad/number of times the ad was delivered.

An arrangement between two or more companies where they agree to jointly display content and perform joint promotion using brand logos or banner advertisements. This can occur without payment.

An amount of income received by a publisher for some quantifiable action such as selling an advertiser’s product and/or service on the publisher’s website.

Common Shortcode (CSC)
Short numeric numbers (typically 4-6 characters) to which text messages can be sent from a mobile phone. Messages sent with relevant words to access a wide variety of mobile content.

Compact HTML (cHTML)
A subset of HTML for small devices, such as mobile phones.

Confirmed Opt-in
Also referred to as Double Opt-In. The process that double-checks the desire to be included on an email list after a primary registration occurs. This is typically executed via an email that requires the subscriber to click on a confirmation link, which also serves as a method of positively confirming the validity of the email address. Anti-spammers and ISPs commonly use this term.

Content Management Systems or CMS
Software tools or web services for creating and amending website content. Typically, CMS are browser-based web applications running on a server. All enable users to readily add new pages within an exisiting page template.

Content Provider (CP)
A company that creates and offers content, e.g. ringtones and games.

Content sponsorship
Advertiser sponsorships of content areas (e.g. entire website, homepage or a specific channel) to include the total value of the package including any embedded or interruptive formats. This category also includes revenue related to email advertising or prioritised listing of results in search engines that are included as part of the sponsorship deal.

Contextual advertising
Advertising that is targeted to the content on the webpage being viewed by a user at that specific time.

Contra deals
A reciprocal agreement in the form of an exchange where payment doesn’t take place, instead services or ad space to promote another company as part of co-branding occurs.

A trend in which different hardware devices such as televisions, computers and telephones merge and have similar functions.

Conversion rate
Measure of success of an online ad when compared to the click-through rate. What defines a ‘conversion’ depends on the marketing objective eg: it can be defined as a sale or request to receive more information.

A descriptor encompassing an end user converting to a paying user or a user that performs an action of some sort.

Information placed on a visitor’s computer or mobile by a web server that can be stored or retrieved when the site is accessed. Used to record a user’s unique behaviour during each visit.

Cookie expiry period
The time stated in an affiliate marketing programme between when a visitor clicks the affiliate link and the sale is credited to the affiliate. Common times are 7, 30 or 90 days. A longer cookie period will result in a higher EPC.

Cost per Acquisition (CPA)
Refers to the overall costs associated with acquiring one user. This can be calculated by dividing total marketing costs by total number of new users.

Cost per Action (CPA)
A pricing model that only charges advertising on an action being conducted eg. a sale or a form being filled in.

Cost per Click (CPC)
The amount paid by an advertiser for a click on their sponsored search listing. See also PPC.

Cost per Mille (CPM) / Cost per Thousand (CPT)
Online advertising can be purchased on the basis of what it costs to show the ad to one thousand viewers (CPM). It is used in marketing as a benchmark to calculate the relative cost of an advertising campaign or an ad message in a given medium. Rather than an absolute cost, CPM estimates the cost per 1,000 views of the ad.

Cost per Thousand Impressions (CTI)
The revenue paid to the publisher by the advertiser for every thousand times the ad is shown.

Customer Relationship Management.

Customer acquisition
Techniques used to gain new customers.

Customer centric marketing
An approach to marketing based on detailed knowledge of customer behavior within the target audience, which then seeks to fulfill the individual needs and wants of customers.

Customer experience management
The evaluation, design and delivery of the entire online customer experience for transactional e-commerce sites from understanding customer motivations, customer journeys between websites as part of a buying process, the website experience and service quality as indicated by inbound enquiries and fulfillment of products.

Customer profiling
Using a website to find out a customer’s specific interests and characteristics.

Customer retention
Techniques to maintain relationships with existing customers.

E-Commerce (Electronic Commerce)
Business that takes place over electronic platforms, such as the internet.

Email bounced
Those emails sent as part of a mailing distribution which did not have a valid recipient email address and so generated a formal failure message.

Embedded format
Advertising formats that are displayed in set spaces on a publisher’s page. See also banners, skyscrapers, button.

A person who accesses and uses a product.

Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
Final stage in the evolution of the GSM standard. Enables theoretical data speeds of up to 384kbit/s within the existing GSM spectrum.

EPC (Average Earnings Per One Hundred Clicks)
A relative rating that illustrates the ability to convert clicks into commissions. It is calculated by taking commissions earned (or commissions paid) divided by the total number of clicks times 100.

Expandable banner/skyscraper
Fixed online advertising placements that expand over the page in the response to user action eg: mouseover. See also Rich Media.

Extensible Markup Language (XML)
Primarily used to facilitate the sharing of data across different information systems, particularly via the internet.

""Working client side in Media, I am always looking to keep on top of new ideas in the market... Tasked with a brief for introducing new and innovative ideas... I was able to engage with a really diverse range of businesses and take both ideas and relationships forward.""
Oliver Shayer, Head of Media Planning - Diageo statistics

Last Updated: 1 October 2019
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